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The Progress of School Education in India

Geeta Gandhi Kingdon∗

This paper offers a comprehensive overview of school education in India. Firstly, it contextualizes India’s educational accomplishments on the global stage, drawing comparisons with nations, particularly China, that are increasingly becoming benchmarks. Secondly, the paper delves into the accessibility of schooling, considering enrollment and attendance rates, and assesses the quality of education based on literacy rates, learning achievements, school resources, and teacher inputs.

Thirdly, the paper scrutinizes the role of private schooling in India, analyzing the growth of private educational institutions and presenting evidence on the relative effectiveness and unit costs of private versus public schools. Lastly, it explores significant public education initiatives. The concluding section proposes a future research agenda and advocates for a rigorous evaluation of the impacts and costs associated with numerous existing educational interventions. This, it suggests, is essential for informed, evidence-based policy-making regarding their relative cost-effectiveness.

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